Maritime Records

  • Foster, Brian, ed.  The Local Port Book of Southampton 1435-36.  Southampton Record Series, 7, 1963.  TEXT PAGES: 126.  ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman.  TRANSLATION: English with facing AN.  RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough.  RECORD TYPE: Customs Accounts.  RECORD NAME: Local Port Accounts of Southampton.  DATES COVERED: 1435-1436.  ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton R.O., S.C. 5/4, item 3.
    COMMENTS: Introduction (7 pp) with comments on the manuscript and its author, the language of the accounts, and trade.  The text is divided into four: the Common Book (non-Italian trade), Alien Book (the Italian trade); summary account and audit (pp. 120-3), and two indentures certifying the receipt of funds by the town bailiff (pp. 124-7). There is also a Bibliography (pp. 128-9), Glossary/index of Commodities (pp. 130-34) and Gender index (names and places, pp. 135-40).
  • Gras, Norman S. B., “A List of Local Customs Due in the Port of Ipswich (?) c. 1303,” inThe Early English Customs System: A Documentary Study of the Institutional and Economic History of the Customs from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard Economic Studies, vol. 18, 1918, pp. 159-63. TEXT PAGES: 5 ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman and Latin. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: List of Tolls due at Port. DATES COVERED: c. 1303. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E122/157/12.
    COMMENTS: The list is written in an alternating mix of Latin and Anglo-Norman. It consists mainly of the customs due on different types of commodities. There is a similar local port customs list written in Anglo-Norman for Sandwich (in William Boys, Collections for an History of Sandwich in Kent with Notices of the Other Cinque Ports, etc. (Canterbury, 1792, pp. 435-40).
  • Gras, Norman S. B., “Account of the Custom Collected on Wool, Woolfells, and Hides Exported from Hull, 1275-1276,” in The Early English Customs System: A Documentary Study of the Institutional and Economic History of the Customs from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard Economic Studies, vol. 18, 1918, pp. 224-44. TEXT PAGES: 20. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt. RECORD TYPE: Port Customs Accounts. DATES COVERED: 1275-76. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E122/55/1.
    COMMENTS: Most of the national port customs accounts were recorded in Latin, but on occasion some were in Anglo-Norman, particularly for the period from 1275 to c.1347. Gras’ Index also serves as a type of glossary since he gives an English translation for most of the commodities listed.
  • Marsden, ReginaldG., ed. Select Pleas in the Court of Admiralty. Vol. I. Selden Society, 6, 1894. TEXT PAGES: 17. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman, Latin, and ME. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt.—Admiralty. RECORD TYPE: Court Rolls. DATES COVERED: ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, C47/18/10.
    COMMENTS: Extensive Introduction (pp. xi-lxxxxvii) traces the development of the Admiralty court and its powers. The earliest case records the testimony in Anglo-Norman and court proceedings in Latin; “Sampson v. Curteys” (pp. 1-17, with translations on pp. 149-65).
  • Moore, Alan. “A Barge of Edward III,” Mariner’s Mirror, 6 (1920): 229-42. TEXT PAGES:c.5. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: partial English. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Military. RECORD TYPE: Inventory of Ship. DATES COVERED: 1373. ARCHIVAL REF: London Guildhall, Letter Book G, f. 304.
    COMMENTS: Inventory of barge provided by city of London to serve the king, called the Paul of London. Translated in H. T. Riley, ed., Memorials of London and London Life in the XIIIth, XIVth and XVth Centuries (1868), but without translating or explaining many of the technical terms, which Moore does provide. Inventory transcribed, but interspersed with author’s comments.
  • Scott, E. and Gilliodts van Severen, L., eds. “Inquisition on Prizes Taken by English Corsairs in Flanders, 1403-15” in Le Cotton Ms. Galba B.I. Documents pour servir à l’histoire des relations entre l’Angleterre et la Flandre e 1341 à 1473. Brussels, 1896.TEXT PAGES: 31. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Maritime. RECORD TYPE: Inquisition. RECORD NAME: Inquisition on prizes taken by corsairs in Flanders. Dates Covered: 1403-1410. ARCHIVAL REF: BL Cotton Ms. Galba B.I.
    COMMENTS: Includes depositions of many Flemish merchants and mariners, and names English offenders or their home ports. This is an Appendix (pp 477-508) of larger work that includes letters (mostly temp. Hen. IV) concerning treaties with other countries, instructions to and and responses from English deputies and ambassadors (especially those in Flanders), petitions from English merchants abroad, and letters between the king, council, and foreign nobles.
  • Studer, Paul, ed. “The Rolls of Oleron,” in The Oak Book of Southampton of c. A.D. 1300. 2 vols. Southampton Record Society, 10 (1910), 11 (1911), pp. 54-103. See alsoSupplement to The Oak Book of Southampton… vol. 12 (1911). TEXT PAGES: 49. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: AN & Latin & ME. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal and Register. RECORD NAME: Rolls of Oleron; Guild Merchant Ordinances; etc… DATES COVERED: c 1230-1300. ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton Rec. Off. Audit House.
    COMMENTS: The Oak Book of Southampton gathers together various customs and laws practiced in Southampton. Vol. II contains the 14C-Anglo-Norman copy of the maritime laws called the Rolls of Oleron, printed with translation and extensive notes on the language. For corrections on dating of Laws of Oleron used by Studer, see also D. Burwash, English Merchant Shipping 1460-1540 (Toronto, 1954), 171-6. See Supplement vol. of The Oak Book for Notes on the Anglo-French Dialect of Southampton, Glossary, and Indices.
  • Studer, Paul, ed. The Port Books of Southampton, 1427-1430 [sic]. Southampton Record Society, 15, 1913. TEXT PAGES: 119. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Only first 13 pages. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Customs Account. RECORD NAME: Local Port Customs Account of Robt. Florys, Water-Blf and Rcvr of Southampton. DATES COVERED: 1426-30. ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton Rec. Office.
    COMMENTS: Studer mistakenly dated 1426/7 account as 1427/8. Account for 1426/7 (is divided into part one covering northern trade and part two covering Mediterranean trade, and is printed in full. Only selections from the account for 1429/30 are printed. Introduction (pp. v-xxviii) discusses the ms and its author, the rise of the port of Southampton and its trade. Appendix contains tables summarizing imports and exports (121-42). Glossary (143-60); Index of Ports and Boats and Index of Persons (161-79).
  • Twiss, Travers, ed. “The Black Book of the Admiralty,” in Monumenta Juridica. The Black Book of the Admiralty. Vol. I. Rolls Series, 1871 (vol. I of 4 vols.). TEXT PAGES: 472. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: AN & Latin & ME. TRANSLATION: Yes-facing page-mostly AN. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Maritime. RECORD TYPE: Register & Customary Laws. RECORD NAME: Black Book of the Admiralty, and the Laws of Oleron. DATES COVERED: c1300-16C. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO HC12/1 (rediscovered 1870s).
    COMMENTS: The Black Book is a procedural manual, written c. 1450 (but containing much earlier material) for the lord high admiral that includes a compilation of maritime laws, customs, and court decisions. It was lost by 1808 so Twiss reconstructed it from later transcripts and related sources. But it was rediscovered by the time vol. 4 was printed, although Twiss makes little of this fact, and prints corrections to his reconstruction in vol. IV (pp. 132-44) without any comment. The Laws of Oleron were maritime customs established by the early 14c that governed maritime disputes in England and most parts of northern Europe. Vol. I contains: Introduction (ix-xciii) on mss consulted, comments on selections, and table of subjects; the Black Book including the Laws of Oleron (88-131, in AN); Inquisition taken at Queenborough in 1375 on customs of the admiralty (132-77, in AN); Treatise on procedure in admiralty court (178-220, in Latin); Articles of inquiry in admiralty court (221-45, in Latin); Documents connected with Admiralty of John Holland, 1443-6 (246-81, Latin and AN); Statues and ordinances of war (282-99, probably a ME translation of Latin version temp Hen. V) (ME version on pp. 459-72); Order of battle in the court of chivalry (300-44, in AN, but not part of original Black Book). The Appendix contains Documents connected with Admiralty of Th. Beaufort from 1407-26 (347-94, in Latin); Fees andprofits pertaining to office of Admiral (396-411, in AN); Extracts from Statutes of the Realm on Admiralty jurisdiction (412-19, in AN); Ordinances of Philip de Valois (1338) for expedition to conquer England (420-29, in AN); Ordinance (1373) of Charles V on jurisdiction of French admiralty (430-58, in AN). Index (pp. 475-91).
  • Twiss, Travers, ed. “The Laws of Oleron,” in Monumenta Juridica. The Black Book of the Admiralty. Vol. I. Rolls Series, 1871 (vol. I of 4 vols.), pp. 88-13. TEXT PAGES: 31. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Customary Law. RECORD TYPE: Maritime Customary Law. DATES COVERED: early 14C. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO.
    COMMENTS: The Laws of Oleron were maritime customs established by the early 14c that governed maritime disputes in England and most parts of northern Europe. The text includes an extensive Introduction (ix-xciii) on mss consulted, comments on selections, and table of subjects in the Black Book of the Admiralty, which contains a copy of the Laws of Oleron (pp. 88-131), as well as an Inquisition taken at Queenborough in 1375 on customs of the admiralty (pp. 132-77, in AN). The edition is supplied with copious notes on mss variants and on the translation. See also the entry on T. Twiss, “The Black Book of the Admiralty” and Paul Studer, “The Rolls of Oleron” in this Bibliography.